Ketamine Infusion Therapy
- CRNA Spotlight on Ketamine
- AANA APNA Joint Position Statement on Ketamine Infusion Therapy for Psychiatric Disorders
- Ketamine Infusion Therapy for Psychiatric Disorders and Chronic Pain Management, Practice Considerations
- Ketamine Infusion Therapy Checklist (login required)
- Ketamine Infusion Therapy Survey Report (login required)
- Standards for Nurse Anesthesia Practice
- Code of Ethics for the Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist
- Considerations for Adding New Activities to Individual CRNA Scope of Practice
- Non-anesthesia Provider Procedural Sedation and Analgesia, Policy Considerations
- The Role of the CRNA on the Procedure Team, Position Statement
- Exploring a Common Practice Question: CRNAs Asked to Practice as RNs, AANA NewsBulletin, September 2013
Sample Policies and Procedures
- University Health System: Ketamine Infusion Pain Management
- Anesthesiology News: Anesthesiologists Take Lead As Ketamine Clinics Proliferate
- Blue Cross Blue Shield of Idaho: Intravenous Anesthetics for the Treatment of Chronic Pain
- Blue Cross Blue Shield of North Carolina Corporate Medical Policy: Intravenous Anesthetics for the Treatment of Chronic Pain
Locate an Attorney
- Find a local attorney who can provide legal advice on state law requirements.
The resources on this page may incorporate or summarize views, guidelines, or recommendations of third parties. Such material is assembled and presented in good faith, but does not necessarily reflect the views of the AANA. Links to third-party websites are inserted for informational purposes and do not constitute endorsement of the material on those sites, or of any associated organization.
Therapy for Depression
- Arunogiri S, Keks NA, Hope J. Should ketamine be used for the clinical treatment of depression? Australas Psychiatry. Aug 2016;24(4):381-384.
- Bobo WV, Voort JL, Croarkin PE, Leung JG, Tye SJ, Frye MA. Ketamine for Treatment-Resistant Unipolar and Bipolar Major Depression: Critical Review and Implications for Clinical Practice. Depress Anxiety. Apr 6 2016.
- Caddy C, Amit BH, McCloud TL, et al. Ketamine and other glutamate receptor modulators for depression in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015(9):CD011612.
- Fond G, Loundou A, Rabu C, et al. Ketamine administration in depressive disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychopharmacology (Berl). Sep 2014;231(18):3663-3676.
- Hasselmann HW. Ketamine as antidepressant? Current state and future perspectives. Curr Neuropharmacol. Jan 2014;12(1):57-70.
- Henderson TA. Practical application of the neuroregenerative properties of ketamine: real world treatment experience. Neural Regen Res. Feb 2016;11(2):195-200.
- Lapidus KA, Levitch CF, Perez AM, et al. A randomized controlled trial of intranasal ketamine in major depressive disorder. Biol Psychiatry. Dec 15 2014;76(12):970-976.
- Messer M, Hailer I. Maintenance ketamine treatment produces long-term recovery from depression. Primary Psychiatry. May 21, 2013.
- McGirr A, Berlim MT, Bond DJ, Fleck MP, Yatham LN, Lam RW. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of ketamine in the rapid treatment of major depressive episodes. Psychol Med. Mar 2015;45(4):693-704.
- Murrough JW, Iosifescu DV, Chang LC, et al. Antidepressant efficacy of ketamine in treatment-resistant major depression: a two-site randomized controlled trial. Am J Psychiatry. Oct 2013;170(10):1134-1142.
- Newport DJ, Carpenter LL, McDonald WM, et al. Ketamine and Other NMDA Antagonists: Early Clinical Trials and Possible Mechanisms in Depression. Am J Psychiatry. Oct 2015;172(10):950-966.
- Niciu MJ, Luckenbaugh DA, Ionescu DF, et al. Clinical predictors of ketamine response in treatment-resistant major depression. J Clin Psychiatry. May 2014;75(5):e417-423.
- Rasmussen KG, Lineberry TW, Galardy CW, et al. Serial infusions of low-dose ketamine for major depression. J Psychopharmacol. May 2013;27(5):444-450.
- Singh JB, Fedgchin M, Daly EJ, et al. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-frequency study of intravenous ketamine in patients with treatment-resistant depression. Am J Psychiatry. Apr 8 2016:appiajp201616010037.
- Solovitch S. Onetime party drug hailed as miracle for treating severe depression. The Washington Post. 2016.
- Stiles, L. Ketamine may provide lasting relief from depression. Psychiatry Advisor. March, 24 2016.
Therapy for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
- Cassels, C. Ketamine: New potential as rapid PTSD treatment not just for depression anymore? Medscape Medical News. April 17 2014. (Free Medscape login required)
- Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health. Intravenous Ketamine for the Treatment of Mental Health Disorders: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines. Ottawa (ON). Aug 20 2014.
- Feder A, et al. Efficacy of Intravenous Ketamine for Treatment of Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, JAMA Psychiatry. 2014;71(6):681-688.
- Womble, A. Effects of Ketamine on Major Depressive Disorder in a Patient with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, AANA J. 2013;81(2):118-119.
Therapy for Chronic Pain
- Birklein F, O'Neill D, Schlereth T. Complex regional pain syndrome: An optimistic perspective. Neurology. Jan 6 2015;84(1):89-96.
- Connolly SB, Prager JP, Harden RN. A systematic review of ketamine for complex regional pain syndrome. Pain Med. May 2015;16(5):943-969.
- Kim M, Cho S, Lee JH. The effects of long-term ketamine treatment on cognitive function in complex regional pain syndrome: A preliminary study. Pain Med. Aug 2016;17(8):1447-1451.
- Niesters M, Martini C, Dahan A. Ketamine for chronic pain: risks and benefits. Br J Clin Pharmacol. Feb 2014;77(2):357-367.
- O'Brien SL, Pangarkar S, Prager J. The use of ketamine in neuropathic pain. Curr Phys Med Rehabil Rep. 2014;2(2):128-145.
- Puchalski P, Zyluk A. Results of the treatment of chronic, refractory CRPS with ketamine infusions: a preliminary report. Handchir Mikrochir Plast Chir. Jun 2016;48(3):143-147.
- Sheehy KA, Muller EA, Lippold C, Nouraie M, Finkel JC, Quezado ZM. Subanesthetic ketamine infusions for the treatment of children and adolescents with chronic pain: a longitudinal study. BMC Pediatr. 2015;15:198.
- Xu J, Yang J, Lin P, Rosenquist E, Cheng J. Intravenous therapies for complex regional pain syndrome: A systematic review. Anesth Analg. Mar 2016;122(3):843-856.