Anesthesia E-ssential

AANA Anesthesia E-ssential, December 5, 2019
National CRNA Week

Vital Signs

Celebrate the Holidays and Step Up Your Holiday Well-being!

On behalf of the AANA, the AANA Peer Assistance and Health & Wellness committees wish you and your families health and wellness throughout this Winter holiday season! Take this time to catch up on sleep, be physically active, avoid germs, help those in need, and celebrate in moderation –

For concerns related to alcohol or other drugs there is always help available through the AANA Peer Assistance Helpline for 24/7 confidential live support and resources: 800-654-5167
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Interested in Serving on a FY2021 AANA Committee?

Deadline: April 30, 2020
The online application site for FY2021 AANA Committee members is now open! More information is available on the AANA Committee page of The application deadline is April 30, 2020.
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Hot Topics

FY2021 CRNA-PAC Committee - New Application Deadline is now April 30, 2020!

CRNAs and SRNAs interested in serving on the CRNA-PAC Committee beginning in the 2021 AANA fiscal year are encouraged to submit an application through the AANA online committee submission form located on the committee page

Responsibilities of Committee members include:
  • Setting the CRNA-PAC income and expenditure policy;
  • Participate in fundraising duties;
  • Reviewing open-seat and challenger candidates for federal office; and
  • Volunteering at CRNA-PAC events and national meetings.
Committee members are expected to attend two in-person meetings per year (Joint Committee Conference in September 2020 and Mid-Year Assembly in April 2021) and conference calls on an as-needed basis.

If you have any questions, please contact Catharine Harris, AANA Associate Director of Political Affairs, at or call (202) 741-9087.

The following is an FEC required legal notification for CRNA-PAC: Gifts to political action committees are not tax deductible. Contributions to CRNA-PAC are for political purposes. All contributions to CRNA-PAC are voluntary. You may refuse to contribute without reprisal. The guidelines are merely suggestions. You are free to contribute more or less than the guidelines suggest, and the association will not favor or disadvantage you by reason of the amount contributed or the decision not to contribute. Federal law requires CRNA-PAC to use its best efforts to collect and report the name, mailing address, occupation, and the name of the employer of individuals whose contributions exceed $200 in a calendar year. Each contributor must be a U.S. Citizen.

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Do You Know an Outstanding CRNA? Nominate Your Colleague for an AANA Recognition Award!

Nomination Deadline: March 15, 2020.
Do you work with an outstanding program director, didactic instructor, or clinical instructor? Do you know someone who has spent a lifetime advancing the practice of nurse anesthesia as a practitioner, educator, clinician, or advocate? Consider nominating your colleague for one of the national AANA recognition awards.

Visit Recognition Awards for details on the:
  • Agatha Hodgins Award for Outstanding Accomplishment,
  • Helen Lamb Outstanding Educator Award,
  • Alice Magaw Outstanding Clinical Anesthesia Practitioner Award,
  • Ira P. Gunn Award for Outstanding Professional Advocacy,
  • Clinical Instructor of the Year Award,
  • Didactic Instructor of the Year Award, and
  • Program Director of the Year Award.
Nomination deadline is March 15, 2020.
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Council on Accreditation (COA) Seeking Qualified Applicants for Onsite Reviewers

Deadline to apply: December 16, 2019
The COA is seeking qualified candidates for Educator Practitioner and Educator Administrator Onsite Reviewers. Please note candidates must meet specific criteria as detailed on the COA website. Candidates must be available to conduct one onsite accreditation review per year. Onsite reviews are typically scheduled for 2-3 consecutive weekdays in April and October. To be assigned to an onsite accreditation review, appointed onsite reviewers must attend a mandatory workshop training; trainings are held in conjunction with the Assembly of Didactic and Clinical Educators (ADCE) in February and the AANA Annual Congress in August. The term of appointment is three years, beginning January 2020. The appointed candidates then would be eligible to be considered for reappointment to a second three-year term. The deadline to apply is December 16, 2019. For position criteria and application requirements, please visit
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Get Your CRNA Week Gear On!

Get ready to celebrate! National CRNA Week is right around the corner. You can help educate the general population about the important work that CRNAs do every day. The 2020 theme emphasizes the high level of care that CRNAs give each and every patient – CRNAs: Your Comfort. Your Care. WE ARE THERE.

Share your professional pride with 2020 National CRNA Week themed shirts, hats, travel mugs, and more. Some items (like pens, buttons, and posters) are available to AANA members for just the cost of shipping. HURRY—quantities are limited. Order today!
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SRNAs and CRNA Educators: Sign Up for the Student Mentoring Program at the Assembly of Didactic and Clinical Educators (ADCE)

Student Registered Nurse Anesthetists (SRNAs), are you interested in becoming a nurse anesthesia educator? CRNA didactic educators, are you interested in mentoring students with an interest in education? Sign up for the Student Mentoring Program at the February 2020 Assembly of Didactic and Clinical Educators (ADCE).

The program consists of a Student/Mentor Meet-and-Greet from 6:00 - 6:30 p.m. on Wednesday, February 19, for the mentor/mentee pairs to meet each other. Students are paired with an educator from a program other than their own. Thursday, February 20, is the one-day mentoring experience. Wherever the mentor goes throughout the day, the student will follow. The mentor introduces their mentee to their colleagues, involves them in their discussions, and takes them to lunch.

SRNAs: One student who has been nominated by their program director is accepted from each nurse anesthesia program, and a student may participate in the mentoring program only once. Let your program director know now if you would like your name submitted!

CRNA Didactic Faculty: Volunteers are needed to serve as mentors.

Please refer to the brochure for complete details about the program. Simply email the Education department at to nominate a student and/or sign up as a mentor by December 9, 2019. Provide your/the student’s name, nurse anesthesia program, email address and phone number.
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Much More than Malpractice Protection

Did you know the malpractice insurance coverage offered by AANA Insurance Services includes additional coverages such as deposition representation and substitute coverages? Visit the new Additional Coverage Benefits page to learn more about the benefits of securing coverage through AANA Insurance Services. Learn more.
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New! AANA-Approved Addiction Treatment Programs

See for more information on the AANA’s treatment recommendations specific to anesthesia professionals with substance use disorder and our growing list of AANA-approved Addiction Treatment Programs which meet this criteria. Remember, help is available through the AANA Peer Assistance Helpline (800-654-5167), which offers 24/7 live confidential support and resources for concerns related to alcohol or other drugs for CRNAs/SRNAs.
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Meetings and Workshops

ADCE Registration is Open!

Join us in Braselton, Ga., at the Château Élan Winery & Resort for the premier nurse anesthesia educational program forum: the Assembly of Didactic and Clinical Educators (ADCE). Meet with leading educators in the field and help define the future of the CRNA profession!

When: February 19-22, 2020
Location: Château Élan Winery and Resort, Braselton, Ga.
Early Registration Savings: Save up to $100.00*

*Resort reservations for ADCE include FREE shuttles to/from Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport.

Wide-Range of Topics include:
  • Leadership to improve faculty/student satisfaction and academic outcomes.
  • Common legal issues faced within nurse anesthesia education.
  • Doctoral curriculum and scholarship.
  • Challenges of clinical education amid production pressure.
  • Health and wellness of faculty and students.
  • Research, and more!
More about the Château Élan - Southern charm meets luxury French splendor with 3,500 acres of grapes, spa treatments, gourmet dining, and golf.
  • Wine tours and tastings held daily.
  • Spa mansion with 14 spa suites.
  • 7 onsite restaurants.
  • 45 holes of championship golf.
Register Today!
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Mid-Year Assembly 2020: Advocate for Your Profession on Capitol Hill

When: April 18-22, 2020
Location: Renaissance Washington D.C. Downtown, Washington, D.C.

The Mid-Year Assembly is the most important nurse anesthesia advocacy meeting. Join us on Capitol Hill as we gather, rally, and impress the importance of nurse anesthesia on our legislators.

Save the Date
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Foundation and Research

AANA Foundation Awards; Nominations Due January 1, 2020

AANA Foundation awards are presented each year at Annual Congress in the areas of research, philanthropy, advocacy, and humanitarianism. In 2019, the Foundation honored: Those who receive awards are humbled and honored. We encourage you to nominate a deserving CRNA who is making a difference in these areas. Applications for nominations that will be awarded at the AANA 2020 Annual Congress in San Diego are now available on the Foundation’s Applications & Program Information webpage and are due January 1, 2020. Nominations are carried forward for three years.

As Juan Quintana shared in his comments upon receiving the award:
"This recognition touches my heart and I thank you. As Mahatma Gandhi once said, 'The best way to find yourself is to lose yourself in the service of others.' Remember, our best work lies in the future we create."

Recognize a CRNA who goes above and beyond in the areas of research, philanthropy, advocacy, or humanitarianism to create a better future for all.
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AANA Foundation – Call for Review Committee Members; Respond by January 31, 2020

The Foundation is currently looking for CRNAs to serve on the Research and Scholarship Committees. The Research Committee reviews applications for research grants, fellowships and poster sessions. The Scholarship Committee reviews student scholarship applications. The Board of Trustees makes funding decisions based on the recommendations of these committees. If you are interested, please submit a statement of interest along with your CV to by January 31, 2020.
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AANA Foundation: Healthcare Policy Opportunities

General Research Grants in Healthcare Policy
One of the research goals of the AANA Foundation is to support new and seasoned investigators in nurse anesthesia through healthcare policy grants. Doctorally prepared CRNAs (clinical or research) are appropriate for application. Grants are awarded to AANA members only. Application will open March 1, 2020.
Deadline for Spring Applications: May 1, 2020

Doctoral Fellowships in Healthcare Policy
AANA Foundation fellowships support CRNAs actively engaged in doctoral and post-doctoral studies that evidence a strong commitment to research. Recipients possess the vision to impact the healthcare system as a doctorally prepared CRNA. Application will open mid-February 2020. Deadline: April 1, 2020

George Mason University Health Policy Institute
The AANA Foundation is supporting 5-10 qualified individuals to attend the George Mason Health Policy Institute program at George Mason University in the summer of 2020. The program's aims are to educate CRNAs and SRNAs regarding leadership strategies to influence health policy that advances healthcare in the United States. During the time at the Institute, classroom lectures and Capitol Hill visits will be included in the curriculum. Application will open in Spring 2020.

Health Policy and Health Services Research External Funding Available
The National Center for Health Statistics and AcademyHealth offer a year-long fellowship program for health services and policy researchers seeking access to restricted NCHS data aimed at health services researchers across multiple disciplines who have a record of independent research. The deadline for this program is January 1, 2020. Additional funding opportunities are also available from 10 industry sponsors that support CRNA and anesthesia research. Applications are on a rolling basis. To learn more about the NCHS/Academy Health Policy Fellowship Program and other opportunities please visit the AANA Research Website today!

Vanderbilt University School of Nursing Supported PhD Scholarships
VUSN’s dean is committed to offering scholarship opportunities for top students. They evaluate all admitted students for merit-based scholarships and financial aid. Last year, the School of Nursing awarded VUSN Service-free tuition scholarships to 6-8 full-time students. In addition, each full-time student receives a $5,000 stipend for up to three years.

Email if you have any questions about these opportunities or the application process. Thank you.

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Support the AANA Foundation: Shop AmazonSmile this Holiday Season

When you give to others, AmazonSmile gives to nurse anesthesia. You can easily support the AANA Foundation every time you make a purchase on Amazon. When you shop at AmazonSmile, Amazon donates 0.5% of the purchase price to the AANA Foundation. Please bookmark the link and support the Foundation while you shop!
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AANA Member Benefits

It Pays to be Prepared: Preorder 2020 CPC Core Modules and Save!

SAVE UP TO 25% on the innovative microlearning series being released in the fall of 2020. You'll have peace of mind knowing you're all set to meet CPC requirements through all four required knowledge domains. Offer expires December 31, 2019.

Be prepared. Preview modules and sign up today at

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Don't Forget! Open Enrollment Closes December 15, 2019

Open Enrollment: November 1 - December 15, 2019
Healthcare plans are now available through the Affiliate Health Insurance Exchange (AHIX), including long term major medical, group medical and the Affordable Care Act ("ObamaCare") or ACA. The long-term major medical coverage offers a new three-year rate and plan design guarantee. It covers pre-existing conditions after 1 year, doctor office co-pays, wellness benefits, a prescription discount program, and more. The group medical program covers all preexisting conditions from Day 1, and it offers unlimited lifetime maximums. ACA coverage also offers pre-existing coverage from Day 1 with unlimited lifetime maximums. Learn more.

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CRNA Jobs: Locum Tenens and Permanent Placement Opportunities Across the Country

United Anesthesia – Various Locations. United Anesthesia has been a leading CRNA and Anesthesiologist Locum Tenens and Permanent Placement firm in the country for 40 years. By specializing in only anesthesia placement, we can partner with you to find the ideal situation to suit your strengths, your priorities, your dreams. Your dedicated personal coordinator is looking forward to your call! Learn more.
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Hospital-Employed CRNA Opportunity at Level I Trauma Center, Carle Physician Group, Urbana, Illinois

Carle Physician Group is seeking an additional CRNA to join our team of 50 CRNAs at our main campus in Urbana, Illinois.

Position Details Include:
  • Join an autonomous and team-centered department of 50 CRNAs who perform over 19,500 cases annually at an established research and teaching hospital.
  • Call 1:20 (call included in 40-hour work week).
  • Three subgroups of 10 CRNAs cover OB, Pediatric, and Heart cases.
  • Perform a wide variety of cases and procedures to include: General, Spinal, Epidurals, IV Regionals, CVP, PA Invasive Monitors and A-lines.
Education Requirements:
  • Master's or Doctorate degree in Nurse Anesthesia
Licensure/Certification Requirements:
  • Current Illinois CRNA license
Learn more.
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CRNA: Banner Health, Ogallala, Nebraska

Nebraska isn't for everyone, but if you enjoy unique adventures, beautiful scenery, calm pace of life, and a solid compensation package, this opportunity is just right for YOU!

Banner Health is one of the largest non-profit healthcare systems in the country with twenty-eight hospitals, six long-term care centers and an array of other services, including family clinics, home care services and home medical equipment, in six Western states.

We have an excellent opportunity for a dynamic CRNA to join our highly trained team!
  • CRNA-only practice model.
  • Responsible for performing general, regional, and monitored anesthesia services including Ultrasound-guided block, and OB.
  • Experience preferred.
  • One week on, one week off, one week call.
Ogallala Community Hospital (OCH) is an 18-bed critical access hospital committed to meeting the healthcare needs of western Nebraska and was one of four Banner Health facilities named HealthStrong™ Top 100 Critical Access Hospitals scoring best among critical access hospitals on the iVantage Health Analytics’ Hospital Strength Index™. The Hospital Strength Index is a comprehensive rating of critical access hospitals, and results recognize the Top 100 Critical Access Hospitals that provide a safety net to communities across rural America. Service area: 15,653.

Banner Health offers a competitive salary and recruitment incentives along with an industry-leading benefits package that provides security for you and your family:
  • Comprehensive medical, dental, vision and pharmacy plans.
  • Paid time off plans.
  • Eligible for benefits coverage within 30 days.
  • Financial savings resources.
  • Career advancement and optimal work/life balance.
  • Employee Discounts.
Learn more.
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Reno CRNA: LifeLinc, Reno, Nevada

LifeLinc is currently accepting applications for CRNAs to work full time and PRN at a vascular ASC in Reno, NV.

Schedule: Monday – Friday (No call, no nights, no weekends)

  • CME Reimbursement
  • PTO
  • Health Insurance
  • 401k
Professional Liability will be covered by LifeLinc.

LifeLinc Anesthesia has emerged as one of the top, comprehensive anesthesia management providers in the country. Since 2003, LifeLinc has centered its mission on "Changing the Status Quo" of healthcare through innovative solutions and excellent clinical quality. We recognize that an exceptional anesthesia team enhances patient safety and experience. This is why we enable our providers to serve as leaders in the perioperative setting, maximizing their potential and fostering long-term employment relationships. Come join a team committed to provider growth and continuing innovation in anesthesia! Learn more.
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CRNA: Merritt Hawkins, Charleston, South Carolina

Private Practice—Enjoy Complete Autonomy In a High-Quality Practice
  • Large 55+ provider private group practice in Charleston’s desirable suburbs.
  • Monday through Friday, always home by 5 p.m.
  • Some days sent home by 2 p.m. but still paid for full day.
  • Autonomy, excellent physician relationships, and respect.
  • Three days of call per month, rarely come back due to low hospital acuity.
  • Base fee paid to be on call and hourly minimum if you come in on call.
  • Flexible schedule with 8-, 10-, or 12-hour shifts—you can decide.
  • Never forced to work late but paid for every minute if you do.
  • 6 weeks of PTO.
  • Generous base pay, benefits, and annual profit sharing.
Ranked By Travel+Leisure As the #1 City In The U.S.
Learn more.
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CRNACareers - A New Year is Coming - What Will 2020 Bring for Your Career?

Maybe you need a change of scenery or a new challenge. 2020 is out there with new opportunities and goals to keep your career stimulated, and jobs for which you are uniquely qualified. Find the new you on!

  • Search and apply to locum tenens or permanent positions at industry-leading facilities.
  • Upload your resume anonymously and allow employers to contact you.
  • Set up job alerts to receive notifications on new openings.
  • Access free career resources to assist with resume and interview preparation.

Learn more today!

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Healthcare Headlines

Healthcare Headlines is for informational purposes, and its content should not be interpreted as endorsements, standards of care, or position statements of the American Association of Nurse Anesthetists.

Gastric Content Assessed with Gastric Ultrasound in Pediatric Patients Prescribed a Light Breakfast Prior to General Anesthesia

Researchers in Sweden questioned whether a light breakfast, eaten before administration of pediatric anesthesia, vacates the stomach within four hours. In all, 20 children aged 1-6 years old were included in the observational cohort study. Each patient was permitted to eat as much yogurt or gruel as desired four hours prior to induction of general anesthesia, and each underwent gastric ultrasound examination within four hours of ingestion. In 15 of the 20 cases, the stomach was empty with juxtaposed walls; but solids were present in the stomach of one patient. For the remaining four children, fluid was present in the stomach, but the gastric content volume was very low. The amount of yogurt or gruel consumed varied from as little as 2.5 mL kg-1 to as much as 25 mL kg-1, with the greatest volume taken in by the child who still had solids present in the stomach. That patient's procedure was pushed back by one hour as a result. With no incidence of pulmonary aspiration or vomiting, the investigators found that a light breakfast four hours ahead of anesthesia induction appears to be manageable; however, more research is needed to determine what level of consumption is safe.

From "Gastric Content Assessed with Gastric Ultrasound in Pediatric Patients Prescribed a Light Breakfast Prior to General Anesthesia"
Pediatric Anesthesia (12/19) Vol. 29, No. 12, P. 1173 Andersson, Hanna; Frykholm, Peter

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Plain and Liposomal Bupivacaine Resulted in Similar Pain Scores After Hip Arthroscopy

New findings indicate that regular bupivacaine is just as effective as liposomal bupivacaine for pain relief following hip replacement surgery, but it still may not be the best choice. For the randomized trial, 33 patients underwent fascia iliaca blockade with liposomal bupivacaine. The control group, meanwhile, included 37 patients whose block was administered with plain bupivacaine. Outcomes of interest included pain scores in the post-anesthesia care unit and on postoperative days 1, 2, 3, and 14; postoperative opioid demand; and subjective loss of sensation in the anterior thigh. The investigators found no significant between-group difference in Defense and Veterans Pain Rating Scale readings at any interval studied, and they also determined total opioid consumption to be similar between the two sets of patients. The primary difference was in numbness of the thigh—which both groups experienced but which persisted at 72 hours post-surgery in 81.2 percent of the liposomal bupivacaine recipients compared with just 21.6 percent of the plain bupivacaine recipients. Based on that finding, coupled with the significantly higher cost of the liposomal formulation, the study authors decline to recommend the use of liposomal bupivacaine via a fascia iliaca blockade for hip arthroplasty.

From "Plain and Liposomal Bupivacaine Resulted in Similar Pain Scores After Hip Arthroscopy"
Healio (12/03/2019) Tingle, Casey

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In Some Surgeries, Hypnosis Is the New General Anesthesia

Hypnosedation is being used for surgery wherever possible, in an effort to avoid the adverse effects sometimes caused by general anesthesia and to curb the risk of addiction associated with opioids. With this technique, popular for decades in Europe, patients receive a local anesthetic to numb pain at the incision site. Hypnosis allows them to relax and disassociate from surgery while remaining awake. A clinical trial involving lumpectomy patients at MD Anderson Cancer Center illustrates the benefits of the approach. Led by Lorenzo Cohen, director of the Integrative Medicine Program there, breast cancer patients consult with a hypnotherapist who helps them reach their "happy place" on the day of surgery. This is achieved through deep breathing, muscle relaxation, and sensory recall of a pleasant setting. Operating room staff monitor the patient's breathing, heart rate, and brain activity; and an anesthesia provider is present and ready to anesthetize any woman who appears to be in undue pain or discomfort. So far, out of more than 50 study participants who have undergone hypnosedation, an anesthesia provider has had to intervene only twice. Other preliminary results show increased activity in visual areas of the brain and decreased activity in the region associated with pain perception. Even so, researchers acknowledge that the technique is not for everyone. It represents one more option, however, for those who can achieve a deeply relaxed state.

From "In Some Surgeries, Hypnosis Is the New General Anesthesia"
Elemental (12/02/19) Smith, Dana G.

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Peripheral Nerve Blocks for Ambulatory Shoulder Surgery

While peripheral nerve blocks are known to alleviate pain after ambulatory shoulder surgery, researchers in Canada wanted to know more about their effect on post-discharge outcomes. With that in mind, they designed a population-based cohort study using linked administrative data from more than 100 Ontario hospitals. Participants included 59,644 patients who had elective ambulatory shoulder surgery from April 2009 through December 2016, including 31,073 who underwent nerve block. The main outcome was a composite of unplanned hospital admissions, visits to the emergency department, readmissions, or death within seven days of surgery. Analysis revealed that peripheral nerve block correlates to fewer unplanned admissions; however, that was the extent of its benefits. Meanwhile, health care costs—the secondary endpoint—were actually higher with the block than without, although the study authors believe the increase probably is not clinically relevant.

From "Peripheral Nerve Blocks for Ambulatory Shoulder Surgery"
Anesthesiology (Fall 2019) Vol. 131, No. 12, P. 1254 Hamilton, Gavin M.; Ramlogan, Reva; Liu, Anne; et al.

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Quiet Please! High Noise Levels Pose Health, Safety Risks in the OR

New research illustrates how loud noise in the operating room (OR) during key stages of surgery presents a threat to staff and patients alike. Vanderbilt University Medical Center's Glendyle Levinskas, BSN, decided to spearhead the observational study after experiencing the problem firsthand. "During a difficult intubation, I witnessed a CRNA state very loudly, 'Quiet please,'" she explains. "The music and conversation among the surgical team was causing a serious distraction and preventing her from performing her job effectively." Levinskas and her team took 30 noise measurements each during surgical counts and anesthesia emergence. They found that noise levels during those critical points were comparable to that from a hairdryer—far above what is considered safe for indoor hospitals by the World Health Organization and Environmental Protection Agency. Coupled with previous research showing that elevated noise levels can result in poor communication of important information, increase the risk of surgical site infection, cause stress, and raise the risk of hearing loss—among other problems—the study authors say their findings make a case for more restrictive noise policies in the OR. Although some noise is unavoidable, Levinskas and her colleagues now plan to explore strategies to help mitigate the problem.

From "Quiet Please! High Noise Levels Pose Health, Safety Risks in the OR"
Anesthesiology News (11/27/19) Doyle, Chase

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Preparation of Anesthesia Workstation for Trigger-Free Anesthesia

A German study evaluated the use of activated charcoal filters in preparing workstations for trigger-free anesthesia, which is a must for individuals at risk for malignant hyperthermia. Activated charcoal filters have drawn interest as an alternative to the conventional washout process, which effectively removes all trace of volatile anesthetics from the machines but is time-intensive. For the study, researchers contaminated an anesthesia machine with sevoflurane or desflurane by ventilating a test lung for 90 minutes. After a brief flushing per manufacturer instructions, activated charcoal filters were put in place and a test lung was ventilated. The filters were removed after 24 hours and the machine set to standby for 10 minutes to test for residual contamination in the circuit. They were then reconnected to the circuit for a functional test of their ability to keep clearing volatile anesthetics from the gas. The series of experiments was compared with control tests performed without activated charcoal filters. The concentration of volatile anesthetics fell below 5 parts per million after the filters were inserted. At least 0.5 l min-1 fresh gas flow (FGF) was needed to maintain the concentration below that threshold in the sevoflurane tests and at least 1 l min-1 FGF was required to do the same in the desflurane experiments. The findings demonstrate that activated charcoal filters satisfy the requirements for trigger-free low flow ventilation over 24 hours, but only the machines contaminated with sevoflurane appear to achieve this with minimal flow ventilation.

From "Preparation of Anesthesia Workstation for Trigger-Free Anesthesia"
European Journal of Anaesthesiology (11/01/2019) Vol. 36, No. 11, P. 851 Thoben, Christian; Dennhardt, Nils; Krauß, Terence; et al.

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News summaries © copyright 2019 SmithBucklin

Anesthesia E-ssential is an executive summary of noteworthy articles of interest to nurse anesthetists. It is distributed weekly to AANA members.

Anesthesia E-ssential is for informational purposes, and its contents should not be interpreted as endorsements, standards of care, or position statements of the American Association of Nurse Anesthetists.

If you are interested in advertising in Anesthesia E-ssential contact HealthCom Media at 215-489-7000.

For more information on AANA and Anesthesia E-ssential, contact:

222 S. Prospect Avenue
Park Ridge, IL 60068
Phone: (855) 526-2262 (toll-free)/(847) 692-7050
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Attn: Cathy Hodson
E–ssential Editor
December 5, 2019