Annette Fuller Hightower, CRNA, BA, is shown preparing her equipment before the start of an anesthetic for surgery at Charleston Memorial Hospital (now known as Charleston Area Medical Center), Charleston, WVa. Hightower was the first African-American to graduate from anesthesia school in West Virginia in 1966, and she was the first African-American to work in West Virginia as a CRNA. See the "Imagining in Time" column for more information on the history of minorities in nursing. (Photograph, taken in 1968, courtesy of Priscilla P. Walkup, CRNA, MS.)
The critical airway, rescue ventilation, and the Combitube: Part 2In Part 2 of this review article, the authors discuss esophageal-tracheal Combitube (ETC) advantages, contraindications, and reported complications in prehospital, emergency medicine, and anesthesia settings. Safe methods to exchange the ETC for a definitive airway also are described.