Standards for Nurse Anesthesia Practice


The AANA Standards for Nurse Anesthesia Practice offer guidance for Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists (CRNAs) and healthcare institutions regarding nurse anesthesia practice. CRNAs are responsible for the quality of services they render.

Standards for Nurse Anesthesia Practice

These standards are intended to:

  1. Assist the profession in evaluating the quality of care provided by its practitioners.
  2. Provide a common base for practitioners to use in their development of a quality practice.
  3. Assist the public in understanding what to expect from the practitioner.
  4. Support and preserve the basic rights of the patient.

These standards apply to all anesthetizing locations and may be exceeded at any time at the discretion of the CRNA.  Although the standards are intended to promote high-quality patient care, they cannot assure specific outcomes.  The CRNA should consider the integration of new technologies into current anesthesia practice.

There may be exceptional patient-specific circumstances that require deviation from a standard.  The CRNA shall document any deviations from these standards (e.g., emergency cases for which informed consent cannot be obtained, surgical interventions or procedures that invalidate application of a monitoring standard) and state the reason for the deviation on the patient’s anesthesia record. 

Standard I
Perform and document a thorough preanesthesia assessment and evaluation.

Standard II
Obtain and document informed consent for the planned anesthetic intervention from the patient or legal guardian, or verify that informed consent has been obtained and documented by a qualified professional.

Standard III
Formulate a patient-specific plan for anesthesia care.

Standard IV
Implement and adjust the anesthesia care plan based on the patient’s physiologic status. Continuously assess the patient’s response to the anesthetic, surgical intervention, or procedure.  Intervene as required to maintain the patient in optimal physiologic condition.  

Standard V
Monitor, evaluate, and document the patient’s physiologic condition as appropriate for the type of anesthesia and specific patient needs. When any physiological monitoring device is used, variable pitch and threshold alarms shall be turned on and audible. The CRNA should attend to the patient continuously until the responsibility of care has been accepted by another anesthesia professional. 

  1. Oxygenation
    Continuously monitor oxygenation by clinical observation and pulse oximetry. If indicated, continually monitor oxygenation by arterial blood gas analysis.
  2. Ventilation
    Continuously monitor ventilation. Verify intubation of the trachea or placement of other artificial airway devices by auscultation, chest excursion, and confirmation of expired carbon dioxide. Use ventilatory pressure monitors as indicated. Continuously monitor end-tidal carbon dioxide during controlled or assisted ventilation and any anesthesia or sedation technique requiring artificial airway support. During moderate or deep sedation, continuously monitor for the presence of expired carbon dioxide.
  3. Cardiovascular
    Continuously monitor cardiovascular status via electrocardiogram. Perform auscultation of heart sounds as needed. Evaluate and document blood pressure and heart rate at least every five minutes.
  4. Thermoregulation
    When clinically significant changes in body temperature are intended, anticipated, or suspected, monitor body temperature in order to facilitate the maintenance of normothermia.
  5. Neuromuscular
    When neuromuscular blocking agents are administered, monitor neuromuscular response to assess depth of blockade and degree of recovery.
  6. Positioning
    Monitor and assess patient positioning and protective measures, except for those aspects that are performed exclusively by one or more other providers.

Interpretation
Continuous clinical observation and vigilance are the basis of safe anesthesia care. Consistent with the CRNA’s professional judgment, additional means of monitoring the patient’s status may be used depending on the needs of the patient, the anesthesia being administered, or the surgical technique or procedure being performed.

Standard VI
Document pertinent anesthesia-related information on the patient’s medical record in an accurate, complete, legible, and timely manner.

Standard VII
Evaluate the patient’s status and determine when it is safe to transfer the responsibility of care. Accurately report the patient’s condition, including all essential information, and transfer the responsibility of care to another qualified healthcare provider in a manner that assures continuity of care and patient safety.

Standard VIII
Adhere to appropriate safety precautions as established within the practice setting to minimize the risks of fire, explosion, electrical shock and equipment malfunction. Based on the patient, surgical intervention or procedure, ensure that the equipment reasonably expected to be necessary for the administration of anesthesia has been checked for proper functionality and document compliance. When the patient is ventilated by an automatic mechanical ventilator, monitor the integrity of the breathing system with a device capable of detecting a disconnection by emitting an audible alarm. When the breathing system of an anesthesia machine is being used to deliver oxygen, the CRNA should monitor inspired oxygen concentration continuously with an oxygen analyzer with a low concentration audible alarm turned on and in use.

Standard IX
Verify that infection control policies and procedures for personnel and equipment exist within the practice setting.  Adhere to infection control policies and procedures as established within the practice setting to minimize the risk of infection to the patient, the CRNA, and other healthcare providers.

Standard X
Participate in the ongoing review and evaluation of anesthesia care to assess quality and appropriateness.

Standard XI
Respect and maintain the basic rights of patients.
 


In 1974, the Standards for Nurse Anesthesia Practice were adopted. In 1983, the "Standards for Nurse Anesthesia Practice" and the "Scope of Practice" statement were included together in the American Association of Nurse Anesthetists Guidelines for the Practice of the Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist. That document subsequently has had the following name changes: Guidelines for Nurse Anesthesia Practice (1989); Guidelines and Standards for Nurse Anesthesia Practice (1992); and Scope and Standards for Nurse Anesthesia Practice (1996). The Scope and Standards for Nurse Anesthesia Practice was most recently revised in January 2013. In February 2013, the AANA Board of Directors approved separating the Scope and Standards for Nurse Anesthesia Practice into two documents: the Scope of Nurse Anesthesia Practice and the Standards for Nurse Anesthesia Practice.